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Star Activity of Restriction Enzymes

Star Activity of Restriction Enzymes

Some restriction enzymes may cleave sequences other than their defined recognition sequence under sub-optimal reaction conditions. In general, these conditions include high salt concentration, presence of impurities, or excessive enzyme compared to substrate DNA. This altered specificity is called star activity. The table below lists enzymes with star activity observed under specific experimental conditions. The alternative cleavage sequences are noted where data are available.

Restriction enzyme Normal recognition
sequence*
Reaction
conditions**
Recognition
sequence*
Reference
Aat IIGACGT↓CE 22
Aor 13H IT↓CCGGAA, C, E 22
Bam H IG↓GATCCA, B, E, FGRATCC
GGNTCC
GGANCC
GGATYC
1,2,3,4
Ban IIGRGCY↓CA, E, F 22
BciT130 I CC↓WGG A, E,    
Bgl IGCCNNNN↓NGGCF 22
Bgl IIA↓GATCTE 22
Bme T110 IC↓YCGRGE 
Bsp T104 ITT↓CGAAA, E 22
Bst P IG↓GTNACCA, F 22
Bst 1107 IGTA↓TACF 22
Dde IC↓TNAGA, B, E  
Eam 1105 IGACNNN↓NNGTCA, C, F 22
Eco O65 IG↓GTNACCE, F 22
Eco R IG↓AATTCA, B, E, FNAATTN4,8,9,10,11
Eco R VGAT↓ATCE RATATC
GNTATC
GANATC
GATNTC
GATANC
GATATY
12,22
Eco T22 IATGCA↓TF, H 22
Fba IT↓GATCAA, C, E, F 22
Hae IIIGG↓CCA 1
Hha IGCG↓CA, E 4
Hin c IIGTY↓RACE 22
Hin d IIIA↓AGCTTB, E RAGCTT
ANGCTT
AAKCTT
AAGMTT
AAGCNT
AAGCTY
10,13,22
Hpa IGTT↓AACA, E 1,22
Kpn IGGTAC↓CE 22
Mun IC↓AATTGA, F 22
Nco IC↓CATGGA, E 22
Nhe IG↓CTAGCA, C, E, F 22
Nsb I TGC↓GCA B   22
PshBI AT↓TAAT D   22
Psp 1406 IAA↓CGTTE 22
Pst ICTGCA↓GA, E 1,4,22
Pvu IICAG↓CTGA, E NAGCTG
CNGCTG
CANCTG
CAGNTG
CAGCNG
CAGCTN
15,16,22
Rsp RS II T↓TAA A    
Sac IGAGCT↓CA, E 22
Sal IG↓TCGACA, E 4,22
Sau 3A I↓GATCA, E SATC
GMTC
GAKC
GATS
17,22
Sca IAGT↓ACTB, C, F 21
Sfi IGGCCNNNN↓NGGCCB, E 22
Smi IATTT↓AAATA, B, C, E 22
Spe IA↓CTAGT E, F 22
Sse 8387 ICCTGCA↓GG E, F 22
Ssp IAAT↓ATTA, C, E, F 22
Taq IT↓CGA A, B, E, G 22
Tth 111 IGACN↓NNGTC B, C NACNNNGTC
GNCNNNGTC
GANNNNGTC
GACNNNNTC
GACNNNGNC
GACNNNGTN
19
Van 91 ICCANNNN↓NTGGA 22
Vpa K11B IG↓GWCCA, C, E, F 22
Xba IT↓CTAGAA, E 1,4

*Key

M: A or C
K: G or T
N: A or C or G or T
R: A or G
Y: C or T
W: A or T
S: G or C

**Reaction Conditions

A: high levels of glycerol
B: in the presence of Mn2+
C: alkaline pH
D: low pH
E: in the presence of DMSO
F: low ionic strength
G: high ionic strength
H: in the presence of 2-mercaptoethanol

References

  1. Nath, K. and Azzolina, B. A. (1981) Gene Amplif. Anal. 1:113-30.
  2. George, J., et al. (1980) J. Biol. Chem. b:6521-4.
  3. George, J. and Chirikjian, J.G. (1982) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA b:2432-6.
  4. Malyguine, E. et al. (1980) Gene 8:163-77.
  5. Clarke, C.M. and Hartley, B.S. (1979) Biochem. J. 177:49-62.
  6. Heininger, K. et al. (1977) Gene b:291-303.
  7. Makula, R.A. and Meagher, R.B. (1980) Nucl. Acids Res. 8:3125-31.
  8. Polisky, B. et al. (1975) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 72:3310-4.
  9. Tikchonenko, T.I. et al. (1978) Gene 4:195-212.
  10. Hsu, M. and Berg, P. (1978) Biochemistry 17:131-8.
  11. Woodbury, C.P. et al. (1980) J. Biol. Chem. 255:11534-46.
  12. Halford, S.E. et al. (1986) Gene 41:173-81.
  13. Nasri, M. and Thomas, D. (1986) Nucl. Acids Res. 14:811-22.
  14. Gingeras, T.R. and Brooks, J.E. (1983) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 80:402-6.
  15. Nasri, M. et al. (1985) FEBS Lett. 185:101-4.
  16. Nasri, M. and Thomas, D. (1987) Nucl. Acids Res. 15:7677-87.
  17. Pech, M. et al. (1979) Cell 18:883-93.
  18. Barany, F. (1988) Gene 65:149-65.
  19. Shinomiya, T. et al. (1982) J. Biochem. 92:1823-32.
  20. Kessler, C., unpublished observations.
  21. Grosskopt, R. and Kessler, C., unpublished observations.
  22. Takara Bio Inc., unpublished observations.

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