Bone osteogenesis is often detected through osteocalcin (OC), a bone-specific protein that is synthesized only by bone-forming osteoblasts. Because of osteocalcin's exclusivity to osteoblasts, it is often used as a marker specific to bone osteogenesis. Osteocalcin is comprised of 49 amino acids, including 2-3 γ-carboxyglutamate residues (Gla), and has a molecular weight of approximately 5.9 kDa. It is known to be a vitamin K-dependent, calcium-binding non-collagenous protein. It is also a hormone that plays an important role in glucose metabolism. While carboxylated, osteocalcin (cOC) is active in bone metabolism; undercarboxylated osteocalcin (ucOC) is active in glucose metabolism. The Pig Gla-Osteocalcin EIA Kit (Cat. #MK139) and the Pig Glu-Osteocalcin EIA Kit (Cat. #MK149) may be used to monitor cOC and ucOC, respectively, during bone osteogenesis and remodeling. The pig osteocalcin ELISA Kit facilitates the relative evaluation of Gla/Glu-osteocalcins.
Animal Models for Bone Remodeling
During bone osteogenesis, the summation of dynamic processes occurring in growing young animals is termed "modeling" (new construction). In mature animals, bone morphology undergoes no apparent changes and appears to be stable, although a certain percentage of the bone is being constantly replaced. This process is called "remodeling" (reconstruction). Efficacy assessments of osteoporosis drugs require the use of two animal model types during the evaluation of bone modeling and remodeling: Rodents, such as mouse and rat, are used to evaluate modeling, while monkeys and miniature pigs are used to evaluate remodeling. Thus, animal models are essential for the development and assessment of potential drug targets.
Quantitative Osteocalcin Analysis
The Pig Gla-Osteocalcin EIA Kit (Cat. #MK139) is a quantitative assay that enables the specific and highly sensitive detection of porcine cOC (an active osteocalcin that exhibits a propensity towards osseointegration). The capture molecule is a plate-bound solid-phase monoclonal antibody that specifically recognizes the osteocalcin Gla residue at position 17. This monoclonal antibody is paired with a labeled monoclonal antibody for porcine osteocalcin detection.
The Pig Glu-Osteocalcin EIA Kit (Cat. #MK149) is a quantitative assay that enables the specific and highly sensitive detection of ucOC released from porcine bone tissues by osteoclasts or inactive ucOC produced by osteoblasts. The capture molecule is a plate-bound solid-phase monoclonal antibody that specifically recognizes the ostecalcin Glu residues at positions 21 and 24. This monoclonal antibody is paired with a labeled monoclonal antibody for porcine osteocalcin detection.