The Living Colors Constitutive Fluorescent Protein Expression Vectors can be used as transfection markers and to label living cells. They do not contain an MCS. In these vectors, the fluorescent protein is constitutively expressed and can be detected by fluorescence microscopy or flow cytometry, providing direct visual evidence of transfection (or cotransfection) or the ability to monitor cells after transplantation experiments in vivo. Transfected cells can also be used in assays that require fluorescent labeling of whole cells—e.g., cell migration assays. If required, stable transfectants can be selected with neomycin (G418).
DsRed-Express & DsRed-Express2 are rapidly-maturing variants of Discosoma sp. red fluorescent protein. DsRed-Express2, which retains the fast maturation and high photostability characteristic of the original DsRed-Express, and has been engineered for increased solubility. DsRed-Express2 is particularly suited for stem cell applications and use in other sensitive cell types (1, 2).
E2-Crimson is a far-red derivative of DsRed-Express2. E2-Crimson is extremely bright, very soluble, and matures extremely fast (half time of 26 minutes at 37°C). It exhibits low cytotoxicity and is well-suited for in vivo applications involving sensitive cells such as primary cells and stem cells.
tdTomato is the tandem version of the dimeric red fluorescent protein, Tomato. tdTomato is an extremely bright fluorescent protein and is extremely suitable for in vivo imaging applications.
CMV Promoter Vectors (pCMV)
The immediate early promoter of cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a constitutive promoter with strong transcriptional activity in a variety of cell types.
EF-1 Alpha Promoter Vectors (pEF1a)
Human elongation factor-1 alpha (EF-1 alpha) is a constitutive promoter that can be used in conditions where other promoters (such as CMV) have diminished activity or have been silenced (as in embryonic stem cells).