Angiotensinogen – Analyzing the Key Precursor of Angiotensin
Products for Researching Angiotensinogen and the Renin–Angiotensin System
Angiotensinogen is a serum globulin produced in the liver that is a component of the renin–angiotensin (RA) system, a hormone system that regulates blood pressure and fluid and electrolyte homeostasis. Circulating angiotensinogen is a renin substrate; renin, a hormone produced in the kidneys in response low blood pressure among other signals, cleaves angiotensinogen to produce angiotensin I. Additional processing converts angiotensin I to angiotensin II, the most biologically important molecule in the RA system. Angiotensin II causes blood vessels to constrict, thereby increasing blood pressure. Angiotensin II also stimulates release of aldosterone from the adrenal cortex to increase absorption of salt and water by the kidneys. In addition, angiotensin II may play a more direct role in kidney development, perhaps by affecting growth factors involved in the development of kidney structures.
|Figure 1. The Renin-Angiotensin System. (Image source: public domain)|
Aside from this classic endocrine function, the RA system is thought to have local autocrine or paracrine roles in a variety of tissues. RA system components, including angiotensinogen, are present in many tissues. Studies have demonstrated the importance of these types of “tissue RA systems” in the brain, heart, peripheral blood vessels, adrenal glands, and kidneys.
Angiotensinogen allelic variants have been linked to susceptibility to essential hypertension (OMIM 145500), renal tubular dysgenesis (OMIM 267430), and pregnancy-induced hypertension (preeclampsia).
Given the importance of angiotensinogen in generation of angiotensin II in both classical and tissue RA systems and the relevance of angiotensin to human disease, highly-specific, reliable assays are critical for accurate detection and measurement of this molecule. We offer several ELISA kits1 to analyze species-specific angiotensinogen from humans and rodents2. Use the table below to select the kit that is best suited for your experiment.
1 Offered in partnership with IBL Co., Ltd., Japan.
References listed below cite IBL or Immuno-Biological Laboratories as
the kit manufacturer.
2 Products sold by Clontech Laboratories are for Research Use Only. Not for use in Diagnostic Procedures.
Table 1. Available angiotensinogen ELISA kits.
|Cat. #||Analyte*||Measurement Range||Sample Type|
|27412A||Human Total Angiotensinogen||0.31 - 20 ng/mL||EDTA-plasma, serum|
|27413A||Mouse Total Angiotensinogen||0.16 - 10 ng/mL|
(3.1 - 192.3 pmol/L)
|27414A||Rat Total Angiotensinogen||0.08 - 5.0 ng/mL|
(1.5 - 96.2 pmol/L)
|27744A||Rat Intact Angiotensinogen||0.08 - 5 ng/mL||EDTA-plasma serum|
*shows <0.1 cross-reactivity with angiotensin I-IV proteins
Examples of Angiotensinogen ELISA Use from the Literature
References discussed below cite IBL or Immuno-Biological Laboratories as the angiotensinogen ELISA kit manufacturer.
Kamiyama, M., et al. (2012) Urinary angiotensinogen as a novel early biomarker of intrarenal renin–angiotensin system activation in experimental type 1 diabetes. J Pharmacol Sci. 119(4): 314
This study investigated urinary angiotensinogen as a potential marker of the early stages of type 1 diabetes using a mouse experimental system. The Mouse Total Angiotensinogen Assay Kit was used.
Zhang, X-Y., et al. (2013) ELISA examining urinary angiotensinogen as a potential indicator of intrarenal renin–angiotensin system (RAS) activity: a clinical study of 128 chronic kidney disease patients. Molecular Biology Reports 40(10):5817.
Urinary angiotensinogen was measured in patients with chronic kidney disease using the Human Total Angiotensinogen Assay Kit. The results suggest that angiotensinogen levels may be a marker of intra-renal RA system activity in this patient group.
Urushihara, M., et al. (2011) Addition of angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker to CCR2 antagonist markedly attenuates crescentic glomerulonephritis. Hypertension 57:586.
This study investigated combination therapy with a CC-chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2) antagonist and an angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker for the treatment of a form of nephritis in a rat model. RA system activation was monitored after drug administration by measuring various components, including angiotensinogen (Rat Total Angiotensinogen Assay Kit).
Erdogmus, S., et al. (2013) Urinary angiotensinogen level is correlated with proteinuria in renal transplant recipients. Transplantation Proceedings 45:935.
This study investigated the relationship between urinary angiotensinogen levels and blood pressure, proteinuria, and renal damage in patients who underwent renal transplant. The Human Angiotensinogen ELISA Assay Kit was used in this study.
Whitaker and Molina. (2013) Angiotensin (1-7) contributes to nitric oxide tonic inhibition of vasopressin release during hemorrhagic shock in acute ethanol intoxicated rodents. Life Sciences 93:623.
Ethanol modulates nitric oxide (NO) production in the periventricular nucleus region of the brain. This effect may contribute to impaired hemodynamic stability. This study examined the potential regulation of NO production by the RA system. Plasma angiotensinogen was measured using the Rat Total Angiotensinogen Assay Kit.
Sousa, T., et al. (2012) Role of H2O2 in hypertension, renin-angiotensin system activation and renal medullary disfunction caused by angiotensin II. British Journal of Pharmacology 166(8):2386.
This study investigated the role of H2O2 in hypertension and its potential ability to activate the intra-renal RA system. Angioteniogen was measured in urine and serum using the Rat Total Angiotensinogen Assay Kit.