Tumor necrosis factor (TNF, formerly known as TNF-alpha) is a proinflammatory cytokine that is secreted primarily by activated macrophages. It is a member of a cytokine superfamily that regulates the acute-phase response to injury, and it acts as a pyrogen that causes fever directly or by stimulating interleukin-1 (IL-1) secretion. In humans, TNF-alpha is a membrane-integrated protein that normally exists as homotrimers. TNF-alpha binds two receptors, TNF-R1 and TNF-R2, and activates three major signaling pathways: the NF-kappaB pathway, the MAP kinase pathway, and the death-signaling (apoptosis) cascade. It has been implicated in autoimmune diseases, insulin resistance, and cancer. TNF-alpha is also known as TNFA, tumor necrosis factor ligand superfamily member 2 (TNFSF2), DIF, APC1 protein, and cachectin.
This kit is a solid-phase sandwich ELISA using two antibodies that are highly specific to rat TNF-alpha protein; one is precoated on the ELISA plate and the other is HRP-conjugated. This assay kit can be used to measure soluble rat TNF-alpha protein in cell culture supernatants.