Tumor necrosis factor (TNF or TNF-alpha) is a proinflammatory cytokine secreted primarily by macrophages. It is a member of the tumor necrosis factor ligand superfamily that regulates the acute-phase response to injury. In humans, TNF is a membrane-integrated protein that normally exists as homotrimers. TNF binds two receptors, TNF-R1 and TNF-R2, and activates three major signaling pathways: the NF-kappaB pathway, the MAP kinase pathway, and the death-signaling (apoptosis) cascade. TNF acts as a pyrogen that causes fever directly or by stimulating interleukin-1 (IL-1) secretion. It has been implicated in autoimmune diseases, insulin resistance, and cancer.
Alternate names for TNF include TNFA, tumor necrosis factor ligand superfamily member 2 (TNFSF2), DIF, APC1 protein, and cachectin.
ELISAs for TNF-Alpha Detection
The Rat TNF-alpha Assay Kit (Cat. # 27194) is a solid-phase sandwich ELISA using two antibodies that are highly specific to recombinant or native rat TNF protein; one antibody is precoated on the ELISA plate and the other is HRP-conjugated. This kit can be used to measure soluble rat TNF protein in cell culture supernatants.
Antibodies for TNF-Alpha Detection
The TNF-alpha antibody (Cat. # 18285A, B) is an affinity-purified IgG antibody that recognizes rat TNF protein. The antibody was raised in rabbit using a synthetic peptide and can be used for Western blot (WB) detection or immunohistochemical (IHC) detection of rat TNF protein.