Interleukins are a group of cytokines that were originally identified in white blood cells (leukocytes). It is now known that interleukins are expressed in a wide variety of cells and are involved in multiple cell-signaling pathways.
Interleukin 1 (IL-1) alpha and beta participate in the regulation of immune responses, inflammatory reactions, and hematopoiesis. IL-1 beta also plays a role in memory functions and regulation of the central nervous system (CNS), as well as cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. IL-1 beta is produced primarily in activated macrophages as an inactive precursor that is cleaved by caspase 1 to yield the active cytokine. It acts through two main receptors that also bind IL-1 alpha. Alternate names for IL-1 beta include catabolin, IL1B, and IL1F2.
Interleukin 6 (IL-6) is a cytokine that mediates a range of biological functions, including the inflammatory response and the maturation of B cells. IL-6 acts on B cells, T cells, hepatocytes, hematopoietic progenitor cells, and cells of the CNS. It is expressed at sites of acute and chronic inflammation, where it is secreted into the serum and binds the IL-6 receptor alpha. The IL-6 gene in humans is linked to many inflammation-associated disease states, including diabetes mellitus and juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Studies have demonstrated that in humans IL-6 also acts as an endogenous pyrogen capable of inducing fever in people with autoimmune diseases or infections. Alternate names for IL-6 include interferon beta-2 (IFNB2), B-cell stimulatory factor-2 (BSF-2), CTL differentiation factor (CDF), B-cell stimulatory factor 2 (BSF2), B-cell differentiation factor, and hybridoma growth factor (HGF).
Interleukin 8 (IL-8) is a member of the CXC chemokine family. It is produced by macrophages and other cell types, such as epithelial cells, in response to an inflammatory stimulus. IL-8 functions primarily as a chemotactic factor to attract neutrophils, basophils, and T-cells, but not monocytes. It is also a potent angiogenic factor. Several cell surface receptors bind IL-8; the most studied are the G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), CXCR1 and CXCR2. IL-8 is associated with localized inflammation in gingivitis and psoriasis. Alternate names for IL-8 include chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 8, CXCL8, GCP-1, MDNCF, MONAP, NAP-1, GCP1, LECT, LUCT, LYNAP, NAF, NAP1, granulocyte chemotactic protein 1, monocyte-derived neutrophil chemotactic factor, monocyte-derived neutrophil-activating peptide, T-cell chemotactic factor, AMCF-I, K60, SCYB8, TSG-1, b-ENAP, alveolar macrophage chemotactic factor I, beta endothelial cell-derived neutrophil activating peptide, beta-thromboglobulin-like protein, lung giant cell carcinoma-derived chemotactic protein, lymphocyte derived neutrophil activating peptide, neutrophil-activating peptide 1, tumor necrosis factor-induced gene 1, emoctakin, C-X-C motif chemokine 8, neutrophil-activating protein 1, protein 3-10C, and small inducible cytokine subfamily B, member 8.
The Interleukin 2 receptor (also known as IL-2R) is a type I membrane protein that binds IL-2 and associates with JAK1. IL-2R is involved in signaling that affects T cell proliferation and is comprised of three subunits: alpha (CD25), beta (CD122), and gamma (CD132). Although the CD25 and CD122 subunits can each bind IL-2 as monomers, the heterodimer complex formed through association of these subunits has a faster association rate and a slower dissociation rate for IL-2 versus either subunit by itself. Once the CD25-CD122 dimer forms and binds IL-2, the CD132 subunit is recruited. Then, activation of the JAK/STAT pathway, the MAP kinase pathway, and the PI3K pathway can occur. IL-2R beta is also known as CD122, IL15RB, P75, and P70-75.
CD25 is expressed in activated T cells and B cells. CD25 expression is used as a marker to identify regulatory T cells (Tregs or CD4+CD25+ cells), cells that modulate the immune response and prevent autoimmunity. Increased CD25 expression in serum has been observed in patients with adult T cell leukemia and patients with malignant lymphoma.
ELISAs for Interleukin Detection
These products are solid-phase sandwich ELISAs using two antibodies that are highly specific to rat IL-1 beta or mouse IL-6 protein. One antibody is precoated on the ELISA plate and the other is HRP-conjugated. These kits can be used to measure soluble rat IL-1 beta or mouse IL-6 protein in serum, EDTA plasma, or cell culture supernatants.
Antibodies for CINC GRO Detection
The anti-rat IL-1 beta, rat IL-6, and human IL-8 antibodies are affinity-purified IgG antibodies that recognize rat IL-1 beta, rat IL-6, and human IL-8 proteins, respectively. The antibodies were raised in rabbit using a synthetic peptide and can be used for Western blot (WB) detection or immunohistochemical (IHC).
The anti-mouse CD122 monoclonal antibody (Cat. # 10399F) is an IL-2 receptor antibody that binds to the IL-2 receptor beta subunit and may be used for in vitro neutralization assays (NT) as well as inhibiting the association between IL-2 and IL-2R beta subunit in vivo.
The anti-human CD25 antibody products (Cat. # 10905A; # 10907A, B) are monoclonal antibodies raised in mouse and can be used to detect human CD25 cells by Western blot (WB), immunoprecipitation (IP), and flow cytometry (FCM).