Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 (CXCL1) is a small cytokine belonging to the CXC chemokine subfamily that is expressed by macrophages, neutrophils, and epithelial cells. Also known as GRO-alpha, it is secreted by human melanoma cells, has mitogenic properties, and is implicated in melanoma pathogenesis. CXCL1 plays a role in spinal cord development by inhibiting the migration of oligodendrocyte precursors. It also acts as a chemoattractant for neutrophils and is involved in angiogenesis, inflammation, wound healing, and tumorigenesis. CXCL1 acts by signaling through the chemokine receptor CXCR2. Studies in mice have shown that CXCL1 decreased the severity of multiple sclerosis and may have a neuroprotective function. CXCL1 was previously known as GRO1 oncogene, GRO-alpha, fibroblast secretory protein (FSP), and melanoma growth stimulating activity alpha (MSGA-alpha); currently, alternate names include neutrophil-activating protein 3 (NAP-3), growth-regulated alpha protein, C-X-C motif chemokine 1, SCYB1, and GROA.
CXCL2 (also known as GRO-beta) has 90% sequence identity with CXCL1. CXCL2 is expressed by activated monocytes and neutrophils at sites of inflammation. It exhibits chemotactic activity with polymorphonuclear leukocytes and hematopoietic stem cells. CXCL2 is known to interact with a cell-surface chemokine receptor, CXCR2.
Mouse macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2) is the homolog of the human CXCL2 protein and the rat CINC-2 protein. MIP-2 is expressed by activated monocytes and neutrophils at sites of inflammation. It has also been shown to control mucosal lymphocyte migration in mice. Alternate names for CXCL2 include MIP-2-alpha; previously it was known as GRO2 oncogene, GRO-beta, and melanoma growth stimulating activity beta (MSGA-beta).
ELISAs for CXCL1 and CXCL2 Detection
These kits are solid-phase sandwich ELISAs using two antibodies that are highly specific to human CXCL1 (GRO-alpha) protein, human CXCL2 protein, or mouse MIP-2 protein; one antibody is precoated on the ELISA plate and the other is HRP-conjugated. These assays can be used to measure soluble protein in serum, EDTA plasma, or cell culture supernatants.
Antibodies for CXCL1 and CXCL2 Detection
These products are affinity-purified IgG antibodies that recognizes human CXCL1 or CXCL2 protein. The antibodies were raised in rabbit using a synthetic peptide, and can be used for Western blot (WB) detection or immunohistochemical (IHC) detection of human CXCL1 or CXCL2 protein.