The SMAD family of proteins in humans are homologs of Drosophila 'mothers against decapentaplegic' and C. elegans Sma proteins. SMAD2 and SMAD3 are intracellular signaling proteins and transcriptional regulators that are activated by transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta). Phosphorylation of SMAD2/3 is useful for understanding of various biological functions of TGF-beta. TGF-beta type I receptor and cyclin-dependent kinases phosphorylate both SMAD2 and SMAD3 in C-terminal and linker regions. TGF-beta signaling is mediated through these phosphorylation events
These products are affinity-purified IgG antibodies that recognize different phosphorylated forms of human SMAD2/SMAD3 protein: C-terminally phosphorylated (pSMAD3C) and linker-phosphorylated (pSMAD3L, pSMAD2L). The antibodies were raised in rabbit or mouse using synthetic peptides and can be used for Western blot (WB) detection, immunohistochemical (IHC) detection, or immunoprecipitation (IP).