Metabolism in mammalian cells requires a constant supply of glucose. Since glucose is a hydrophilic molecule, it must be transported across the cell membrane by dedicated proteins, known as glucose transporters. In humans, these proteins are encoded by the facilitative glucose transporter (GLUT) gene family, now known as the solute carrier family 2 or SLC2A gene family.
GLUT-1 was the first member of this family to be characterized. It is responsible for the basal glucose uptake needed for respiration in all cells. Expression levels of GLUT-1 in cell membranes vary inversely with glucose concentration. GLUT-1 can also transport other pentose and hexose sugars. Aerobic glycolysis in tumor cells requires high levels of glucose, and GLUT-1 has been targeted in cancer research. Alternate names include solute carrier family 2 (facilitated glucose transporter), member 1 (SLC2A1); glucose transporter type 1, erythrocyte/brain; HepG2 glucose transporter; GLUT; PED; DYT9; DYT17; DYT18; EIG12; and GLUT1DS.
GLUT-3 has been studied in other cell types with specific glucose requirements, including sperm, preimplantation embryos, circulating white blood cells, and carcinoma cell lines. GLUT-3 is expressed in, and is the main transporter for, neuronal cells. GLUT-3 has both a higher affinity for glucose and at least a five-fold greater transport capacity than GLUT-1, GLUT-2, and GLUT-4. Alternate names include solute carrier family 2 (facilitated glucose transporter), member 3 (SLC2A3); and glucose transporter type 3, brain.
GLUT-5 is a fructose transporter expressed on the apical border of enterocytes in the small intestine. It facilitates the transport of fructose from the intestinal lumen into enterocytes. In addition, GLUT-5 is expressed in adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, brain, testis, and kidney. This GLUT-5 antibody detects microglia selectively in immunostaining, and does not react with monocytes or monocyte-derived macrophages. Alternate names include solute carrier family 2 (facilitated glucose/fructose transporter), member 5 (SLC2A5); and glucose transporter type 5, small intestine.
Antibodies for GLUT Family Detection
The anti-human GLUT-1, GLUT-3, and GLUT-5 antibody products are affinity-purified IgG antibodies. The antibodies were raised in rabbit using a synthetic peptide and can be used for Western blot (WB) detection or immunohistochemical (IHC) detection of human GLUT proteins.